QUESTION OF: The situation of the Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea: economic objectives and implications

SUBMITTED BY: Bosnia & Herzegovina

CO-SUBMITTERS:Brazil, Cameroon, Chile, China, Ecuador, Haiti, Jordan, Mexico, Namibia, Niger, Paraguay, Philippines, Spain, Yemen.


Recognizing the increasing tensions in the Eastern Mediterranean due to the oil located in the region, 


Believing fully that this issue must be resolved peacefully without bringing negative effects to the economies of countries affected, 


Reminding that an Exclusive Economic Zone is the outer limit of which is defined to a distance of 200 nautical miles from the baselines of the country from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured in accordance with the Territorial Sea Laws, 1964 and 2014,


Keeping in mind that Exclusive Economic Zone exercises may consist of exploring, exploiting, conserving and managing the natural resources, other activities for the economic exploitation and exploration of the zone, such as the production of energy from the water, currents, and winds jurisdiction with regard to the establishment and use of artificial islands, installations and structures; marine scientific research; and the protection and preservation of the marine environment,


Drawing attention to the detrimental effects of Exclusive Economic Zones, where the power dynamic between involved states may be an imbalance in that one more developed state has more power over another less developed state – where a power dynamic is qualified by a country’s economic resource acquisition and abundance, and political ties with neighboring countries,


Bearing in mind that the conflict on the Eastern Mediterranean is caused by overlapping claims on natural resources such as natural gas and oil in claimed Exclusive Economic Zones of states locating in the East Mediterranean, especially originating from the conflict between Turkey and Greece,


Aware of the difficulties that the situation in the East Mediterranean causes in the international economy, future economic initiatives, and most important worldwide trade, as well as damaging the economy of all states in the region,

Deeply concerned by the threat to the international security and safety caused by joint and national military exercises, present armed vehicles, and possible military interactions between states in the Eastern Mediterranean,


Defining tangibility of salience as whether the main issue is of an economic or ideological root,


  1. Recommends for the World Trade Organization (WTO) to intervene to provide stability and establish a harmonious trading ecosystem to promote regional growth for all Member States while reducing tensions, in ways such as but not limited to:
    1. supporting the steps of implementation of a regional trade system to promote economic growth where:
      1. minimum levels of essential factors of production are maintained in all parties within the archipelago
      2. promote the economic and trade participation and development of lesser developed (and less resourceful) parties
      3. aim to maximize efficiency in the allocation of resources as well as the productivity of workers
    2. the monitoring and opposition of protectionist measures regarding the East Mediterranean, while allowing for defence measures to be levied
    3. monitoring domestic trade policy and proposed projects of the parties involved,  and
    4. act as a forum for trade negotiation relating to the dispersal of energy obtained from both the Anatolian and East Mediterranean pipeline;
  2. Urges an immediate meeting between the related parties of the conflict in the East Mediterranean Sea; Turkey, France, Egypt, Greece, Cyprus, Libya, Israel, and other related parties as recognized by the UN that will be held in an appropriate unbiased state decided by the participants of the meeting, in order to:
    1. discuss the ways in which the economic burden that the current conflict in the East Mediterranean causes for the states in the region including Least Economically Developed Countries (LEDCs) can be reduced
    2. continue further work on ensuring that the eastern Mediterranean region has the ability to trade worldwide
    3. reduce the effects of the conflict on public and economy such as but not limited to ongoing trade deals, transportation of goods, tourism, and commercial shipment, and
    4. discuss the terms of a possible demilitarization of the region, such as:
      1. the time period in which the demilitarization by a state should be completed
      2. the rate of demilitarization by either deciding on a minimum deal or a step-by-step demobilization of the area;
  3. Recommends the creation of a new panel under the roof of the United Nations (UN) that will consist of researchers and officials of the UN and the other Member States who declare ownership over the natural resources in the East Mediterranean in order to:
    1. carry out an unbiased and objective investigation of the natural resources and the overlapping EEZs in the East Mediterranean Sea, and
    2. conduct a resource analysis in cooperation with relative UN bodies on oil, gas, and marine resources as well as supervising the scientific research in the region, which may also function as an advisor on the other disputes caused by overlapping EEZs if decided by the UN;
  4. Advises the creation of a mediation framework by the United Nations Member States to ensure that the arbitration is coordinated by all involved parties without any biases, as well as analyzing the political and social rationale regarding the dispute in the first place since seeing whether the salience of the dispute is tangible or intangible constitutes how the arbitration will be conducted;
  5. Encourages the departure of any and all armed forces and military vehicles, in accordance with previously signed international treaties, and the termination of any and all either joint or national military exercises in the eastern Mediterranean at least for a time phase of six months due to the high tensions in the region, in order to:
    1. create a safe environment and maritime roads for trade vessels such as commercial ships, cargo ships, and more to ensure that the trade flow is secure
    2. provide a threat-free environment for the marine research vehicles in the region
    3. prevent any and all threats of military intervention or armed clash in the region
    4. ease the tension by creating a hotline, similar to the Moscow-Washington Hotline present between the United States of America and Russia, between Greece and Turkey to ensure a trusty de-escalation method in case of a military emergency;
  6. Calls for the protection of free and open trade in the region to be protected by a court of arbitration that includes territorial claim holders and neutral parties in the region;
  7. Suggests that only independent island states, as recognized by the United Nations, be eligible for a full EEZ constituted of a 200 nautical miles (nm) radius, and in the cause of dispute, the following measures are suggested:
    1. provinces are granted an EEZ based on their population as a percentage of the mainland, to be determined by the parties and the UN Security Council, if this minimum is not reached, the province will only be eligible to the minimum of a 12nm radius of territorial waters, given:
      1. the province belongs to an independent island Member State
      2. the maritime zone is disputed by two independent states or two territorial islands
    2. a fair repartition between the two should be agreed on, either an equal division or a repartition based on scientifically supported claims, such as continental shelf extent
    3. the maritime zone is disputed by a territorial island and an independent state, in which case the independent state, whether island or continental, should be given, at its closest extent, a full 200nm EEZ surrounding or bordering the 12nm radius of territorial waters belonging to the territorial island, and
    4. encourages countries with neighbouring EE Zones to begin joint initiatives and projects over overlapping EE zones in order to maximize profit for both nations for the sake of regional stability.